Driver Keyboard Oker Kb-377 ((INSTALL))

Driver Keyboard Oker Kb-377 ((INSTALL))

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Driver Keyboard Oker Kb-377

In the case-control study of Yakes et al. (1995), a cohort of 20,284 A-bomb survivors was identified, with 714 men diagnosed as having nasopharyngeal carcinoma (0.49 cases per 1,000 person-years) and 3,107 men at risk for other cancer but not for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (the referent group). A 10-year lag period was used for all analyses. The risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma increased with duration of use and number of cigarettes smoked per day, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.8 for the very heavy smokers, 5.6 for the heavy smokers, 8.8 for the moderate smokers, and 11.5 for the light smokers. For men, the adjusted RRs for nasopharyngeal carcinoma associated with 5 or more years of use and 10 or more cigarettes a day, compared with non-users, were 4.3 and 8.9 respectively. For women, the adjusted RRs for smoking 10 or more cigarettes a day, compared with non-users, were 6.8 and 9.4, respectively. Both men and women had higher risks of nasopharyngeal carcinoma for each year of waterpipe use, and the excess risk was slightly higher for men compared with women. These findings add to evidence that smoking is an important aetiological factor for both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other head and neck cancers. The authors suggest that the high risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from waterpipe use may be due to the stronger impact of charcoal fumes on the nasopharyngeal mucosa than of tobacco smoke.

Rodriguez-Morales et al. (1999) conducted a case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (208 cases and 208 controls) in Havana, Cuba. Information was obtained by personal interview and by review of medical records. Independent variables included age, gender, education, occupation, number of years as a smoker, tobacco type and amount smoked, as well as other variables associated with habitual snuff use. Tobacco use was strongly associated with an increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Persons who had used tobacco at least five years before their diagnosis had a fourfold increased risk. Heavy smokers had an approximate threefold increased risk, while moderate smokers had an approximate twofold increased risk. Statistically significant risks were also seen for alcohol, increasing education level and in-degree social stratum. Although the study was limited by both recall and reliability problems associated with tobacco and alcohol use, it suggested that tobacco and alcohol probably are independent risk factors for the disease.


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